# `vegas` Module¶

## Introduction¶

The key Python objects supported by the `vegas` module are:

These are described in detail below.

## Integrator Objects¶

The central component of the `vegas` package is the integrator class:

class `vegas.``Integrator`

`vegas.Integrator` objects make Monte Carlo estimates of multidimensional functions `f(x)` where `x[d]` is a point in the integration volume:

```integ = vegas.Integrator(integration_region)

result = integ(f, nitn=10, neval=10000)
```

The integator makes `nitn` estimates of the integral, each using at most `neval` samples of the integrand, as it adapts to the specific features of the integrand. Successive estimates (iterations) typically improve in accuracy until the integrator has fully adapted. The integrator returns the weighted average of all `nitn` estimates, together with an estimate of the statistical (Monte Carlo) uncertainty in that estimate of the integral. The result is an object of type `RAvg` (which is derived from `gvar.GVar`).

Integrands `f(x)` return numbers, arrays of numbers (any shape), or dictionaries whose values are numbers or arrays (any shape). Each number returned by an integrand corresponds to a different integrand. When arrays are returned, `vegas` adapts to the first number in the flattened array. When dictionaries are returned, `vegas` adapts to the first number in the value corresponding to the first key.

`vegas` can generate integration points in batches for integrands built from classes derived from `vegas.BatchIntegrand`, or integrand functions decorated by `vegas.batchintegrand()`. Batch integrands are typically much faster, especially if they are coded in Cython or C/C++ or Fortran.

`vegas.Integrator`s have a large number of parameters but the only ones that most people will care about are: the number `nitn` of iterations of the `vegas` algorithm; the maximum number `neval` of integrand evaluations per iteration; and the damping parameter `alpha`, which is used to slow down the adaptive algorithms when they would otherwise be unstable (e.g., with very peaky integrands). Setting parameter `analyzer=vegas.reporter()` is sometimes useful, as well, since it causes `vegas` to print (on `sys.stdout`) intermediate results from each iteration, as they are produced. This helps when each iteration takes a long time to complete (e.g., longer than an hour) because it allows you to monitor progress as it is being made (or not).

Parameters: map (array, `vegas.AdaptiveMap` or `vegas.Integrator`) – The integration region as specified by an array `map[d, i]` where `d` is the direction and `i=0,1` specify the lower and upper limits of integration in direction `d`. `map` could also be the integration map from another `vegas.Integrator`, or that `vegas.Integrator` itself. In this case the grid is copied from the existing integrator. nitn (positive int) – The maximum number of iterations used to adapt to the integrand and estimate its value. The default value is 10; typical values range from 10 to 20. neval (positive int) – Approximate number of integrand evaluations in each iteration of the `vegas` algorithm. Increasing `neval` increases the precision: statistical errors should fall at least as fast as `sqrt(1./neval)` and often fall much faster. The default value is 1000; real problems often require 10–10,000 times more evaluations than this. nstrat (int array) – `nstrat[d]` specifies the number of stratifications to use in direction `d`. By default this parameter is set automatically, based on parameter `neval`, with `nstrat[d]` approximately the same for every `d`. Specifying `nstrat` explicitly makes it possible to concentrate stratifications in directions where they are most needed. If `nstrat` is set but `neval` is not, `neval` is set equal to `2*prod(nstrat)/(1-neval_frac)`. alpha (float) – Damping parameter controlling the remapping of the integration variables as `vegas` adapts to the integrand. Smaller values slow adaptation, which may be desirable for difficult integrands. Small or zero `alpha`s are also sometimes useful after the grid has adapted, to minimize fluctuations away from the optimal grid. The default value is 0.5. beta (float) – Damping parameter controlling the redistribution of integrand evaluations across hypercubes in the stratified sampling of the integral (over transformed variables). Smaller values limit the amount of redistribution. The theoretically optimal value is 1; setting `beta=0` prevents any redistribution of evaluations. The default value is 0.75. neval_frac (float) – Approximate fraction of function evaluations used for adaptive stratified sampling. `vegas` distributes `(1-neval_frac)*neval` integrand evaluations uniformly over all hypercubes, with at least 2 evaluations per hypercube. The remaining `neval_frac*neval` evaluations are concentrated in hypercubes where the errors are largest. Increasing `neval_frac` makes more integrand evaluations available for adaptive stratified sampling, but reduces the number of hypercubes, which limits the algorithm’s ability to adapt. Ignored when `beta=0`. Default is `neval_frac=0.75`. adapt (bool) – Setting `adapt=False` prevents further adaptation by `vegas`. Typically this would be done after training the `vegas.Integrator` on an integrand, in order to stabilize further estimates of the integral. `vegas` uses unweighted averages to combine results from different iterations when `adapt=False`. The default setting is `adapt=True`. nproc (int or None) – Number of processes/processors used to evalute the integrand. If `nproc>1` Python’s `multiprocessing` module is used to spread integration points across multiple processors, thereby potentially reducing the time required to evaluate the integral. There is a significant overhead involved in using multiple processors so this option is useful only when the integrand is expensive to evaluate. When using the `multiprocessing` module in its default mode for MacOS and Windows, it is important that the main module can be safely imported (i.e., without launching new processes). This can be accomplished with some version of the `if __name__ == '__main__`:` construct in the main module: e.g., ```if __name__ == '__main__': main() ``` This is not an issue on other Unix platforms. See the `multiprocessing` documentation for more information. Note that setting `nproc` greater than 1 disables MPI support. Set `nproc=None` to use all the processors on the machine (equivalent to `nproc=os.cpu_count()`). Default value is `nproc=1`. (Requires Python 3.3 or later.) analyzer – An object with methods `analyzer.begin(itn, integrator)``analyzer.end(itn_result, result)` where: `begin(itn, integrator)` is called at the start of each `vegas` iteration with `itn` equal to the iteration number and `integrator` equal to the integrator itself; and `end(itn_result, result)` is called at the end of each iteration with `itn_result` equal to the result for that iteration and `result` equal to the cummulative result of all iterations so far. Setting `analyzer=vegas.reporter()`, for example, causes vegas to print out a running report of its results as they are produced. The default is `analyzer=None`. uses_jac (bool) – Setting `uses_jac=True` causes `vegas` to call the integrand with two arguments: `fcn(x, jac=jac)`. The second argument is the Jacobian `jac[d] = dx[d]/dy[d]` of the `vegas` map. The integral over `x[d]` of `1/jac[d]` equals 1 (exactly). The default setting is `uses_jac=False`. nhcube_batch (positive int) – The number of hypercubes (in y space) whose integration points are combined into a single batch to be passed to the integrand, together, when using `vegas` in batch mode. The default value is 10,000. Larger values may be lead to faster evaluations, but at the cost of more memory for internal work arrays. maxinc_axis (positive int) – The maximum number of increments per axis allowed for the x-space grid. The default value is 1000; there is probably little need to use other values. max_nhcube (positive int) – Maximum number of y-space hypercubes used for stratified sampling. Setting `max_nhcube=1` turns stratified sampling off, which is probably never a good idea. The default setting (1e9) was chosen to correspond to the point where internal work arrays become comparable in size to the typical amount of RAM available to a processor (in a laptop in 2014). Internal memory usage is large only when `beta>0` and `minimize_mem=False`; therefore `max_nhcube` is ignored if `beta=0` or `minimize_mem=True`. max_neval_hcube (positive int) – Maximum number of integrand evaluations per hypercube in the stratification. The default value is 1e6. Larger values might allow for more adaptation (when `beta>0`), but also can result in large internal work arrays. max_mem (positive float) – Maximum number of floats allowed in internal work arrays (approx.). A `MemoryError` is raised if the work arrays are too large, in which case one might want to reduce `max_neval_hcube` or `max_nhcube` (or increase `max_mem` if there is enough RAM). Default value is 1e9. rtol (float) – Relative error in the integral estimate at which point the integrator can stop. The default value is 0.0 which turns off this stopping condition. This stopping condition can be quite unreliable in early iterations, before `vegas` has converged. Use with caution, if at all. atol (float) – Absolute error in the integral estimate at which point the integrator can stop. The default value is 0.0 which turns off this stopping condition. This stopping condition can be quite unreliable in early iterations, before `vegas` has converged. Use with caution, if at all. ran_array_generator – Function that generates `numpy` arrays of random numbers distributed uniformly between 0 and 1. `ran_array_generator(shape)` should create an array whose dimensions are specified by the integer-valued tuple `shape`. The default generator is `numpy.random.random`. sync_ran (bool) – If `True` (default), the default random number generator is synchronized across all processors when using MPI. If `False`, `vegas` does no synchronization (but the random numbers should synchronized some other way). adapt_to_errors (bool) – `adapt_to_errors=False` causes `vegas` to remap the integration variables to emphasize regions where `|f(x)|` is largest. This is the default mode. `adapt_to_errors=True` causes `vegas` to remap variables to emphasize regions where the Monte Carlo error is largest. This might be superior when the number of the number of stratifications (`self.nstrat`) in the y grid is large (> 100). It is typically useful only in one or two dimensions. uniform_nstrat (bool) – If `True`, requires that the `nstrat[d]` be equal for all `d`. If `False` (default), the algorithm maximizes the number of stratifications while requiring `|nstrat[d1] - nstrat[d2]| <= 1`. This parameter is ignored if `nstrat` is specified explicitly. mpi (bool) – Setting `mpi=False` disables `mpi` support in `vegas` even if `mpi` is available; setting `mpi=True` (default) allows use of `mpi` provided module `mpi4py` is installed. This flag is ignored when `mpi` is not being used (and so has no impact on performance). minimize_mem – When `True`, `vegas` minimizes internal workspace at the cost of extra evaluations of the integrand. This can increase execution time by 50–100% but might be desirable when the number of evaluations is very large (e.g., `neval=1e9`). Normally `vegas` uses internal work space that grows in proportion to `neval`. If that work space exceeds the size of the RAM available to the processor, `vegas` runs much more slowly. Setting `minimize_mem=True` greatly reduces the internal storage used by `vegas`; in particular memory becomes independent of `neval`. The default setting (`minimize_mem=False`), however, is much superior unless memory becomes a problem. (The large memory is needed for adaptive stratified sampling, so memory is not an issue if `beta=0`.)
Methods:
`__call__`(fcn, save=None, saveall=None, **kargs)

Integrate integrand `fcn`.

A typical integrand has the form, for example:

```def f(x):
return x ** 2 + x ** 4
```

The argument `x[d]` is an integration point, where index `d=0...` represents direction within the integration volume.

Integrands can be array-valued, representing multiple integrands: e.g.,

```def f(x):
return [x ** 2, x / x]
```

The return arrays can have any shape. Dictionary-valued integrands are also supported: e.g.,

```def f(x):
return dict(a=x ** 2, b=[x / x, x / x])
```

Integrand functions that return arrays or dictionaries are useful for multiple integrands that are closely related, and can lead to substantial reductions in the errors for ratios or differences of the results.

It is usually much faster to use `vegas` in batch mode, where integration points are presented to the integrand in batches. A simple batch integrand might be, for example:

```@vegas.batchintegrand
def f(x):
return x[:, 0] ** 2 + x[:, 1] ** 4
```

where decorator `@vegas.batchintegrand` tells `vegas` that the integrand processes integration points in batches. The array `x[i, d]` represents a collection of different integration points labeled by `i=0...`. (The number of points is controlled `vegas.Integrator` parameter `nhcube_batch`.) The batch index is always first.

Batch integrands can also be constructed from classes derived from `vegas.BatchIntegrand`.

Batch mode is particularly useful (and fast) when the class derived from `vegas.BatchIntegrand` is coded in Cython. Then loops over the integration points can be coded explicitly, avoiding the need to use `numpy`’s whole-array operators if they are not well suited to the integrand.

Any `vegas` parameter can also be reset: e.g., `self(fcn, nitn=20, neval=1e6)`.

Parameters: fcn (callable) – Integrand function. save (str or file or None) – Writes `results` into pickle file specified by `save` at the end of each iteration. For example, setting `save='results.pkl'` means that the results returned by the last vegas iteration can be reconstructed later using: ```import pickle with open('results.pkl', 'rb') as ifile: results = pickle.load(ifile) ``` Ignored if `save=None` (default). saveall (str or file or None) – Writes `(results, integrator)` into pickle file specified by `saveall` at the end of each iteration. For example, setting `saveall='allresults.pkl'` means that the results returned by the last vegas iteration, together with a clone of the (adapted) integrator, can be reconstructed later using: ```import pickle with open('allresults.pkl', 'rb') as ifile: results, integrator = pickle.load(ifile) ``` Ignored if `saveall=None` (default).
`set`(ka={}, **kargs)

Reset default parameters in integrator.

Usage is analogous to the constructor for `vegas.Integrator`: for example,

```old_defaults = integ.set(neval=1e6, nitn=20)
```

resets the default values for `neval` and `nitn` in `vegas.Integrator` `integ`. A dictionary, here `old_defaults`, is returned. It can be used to restore the old defaults using, for example:

```integ.set(old_defaults)
```
`settings`(ngrid=0)

Assemble summary of integrator settings into string.

Parameters: ngrid (int) – Number of grid nodes in each direction to include in summary. The default is 0. String containing the settings.
`random`(yield_hcube=False, yield_y=False)

Iterator over integration points and weights.

This method creates an iterator that returns integration points from `vegas`, and their corresponding weights in an integral. Each point `x[d]` is accompanied by the weight assigned to that point by `vegas` when estimating an integral. Optionally it will also return the index of the hypercube containing the integration point and/or the y-space coordinates:

```integ.random()  yields  x, wgt

integ.random(yield_hcube=True) yields x, wgt, hcube

integ.random(yield_y=True) yields x, y, wgt

integ.random(yield_hcube=True, yield_y=True) yields x, y, wgt, hcube
```

The number of integration points returned by the iterator corresponds to a single iteration.

`random_batch`(yield_hcube=False, yield_y=False)

Iterator over integration points and weights.

This method creates an iterator that returns integration points from `vegas`, and their corresponding weights in an integral. The points are provided in arrays `x[i, d]` where `i=0...` labels the integration points in a batch and `d=0...` labels direction. The corresponding weights assigned by `vegas` to each point are provided in an array `wgt[i]`.

Optionally the integrator will also return the indices of the hypercubes containing the integration points and/or the y-space coordinates of those points:

```integ.random_batch()  yields  x, wgt

integ.random_batch(yield_hcube=True) yields x, wgt, hcube

integ.random_batch(yield_y=True) yields x, y, wgt

integ.random_batch(yield_hcube=True, yield_y=True) yields x, y, wgt, hcube
```

The number of integration points returned by the iterator corresponds to a single iteration. The number in a batch is controlled by parameter `nhcube_batch`.

`vegas`’s remapping of the integration variables is handled by a `vegas.AdaptiveMap` object, which maps the original integration variables x into new variables y in a unit hypercube. Each direction has its own map specified by a grid in x space: where and are the limits of integration. The grid specifies the transformation function at the points for : Linear interpolation is used between those points. The Jacobian for this transformation is: `vegas` adjusts the increments sizes to optimize its Monte Carlo estimates of the integral. This involves training the grid. To illustrate how this is done with `vegas.AdaptiveMap`s consider a simple two dimensional integral over a unit hypercube with integrand:

```def f(x):
return x * x ** 2
```

We want to create a grid that optimizes uniform Monte Carlo estimates of the integral in y space. We do this by sampling the integrand at a large number `ny` of random points `y[j, d]`, where `j=0...ny-1` and `d=0,1`, uniformly distributed throughout the integration volume in y space. These samples be used to train the grid using the following code:

```import vegas
import numpy as np

def f(x):
return x * x ** 2

m = vegas.AdaptiveMap([[0, 1], [0, 1]], ninc=5)

ny = 1000
y = np.random.uniform(0., 1., (ny, 2))  # 1000 random y's

x = np.empty(y.shape, float)            # work space
jac = np.empty(y.shape, float)
f2 = np.empty(y.shape, float)

print('intial grid:')
print(m.settings())

for itn in range(5):                    # 5 iterations to adapt
m.map(y, x, jac)                     # compute x's and jac

for j in range(ny):                  # compute training data
f2[j] = (jac[j] * f(x[j])) ** 2

print('iteration %d:' % itn)
print(m.settings())
```

In each of the 5 iterations, the `vegas.AdaptiveMap` adjusts the map, making increments smaller where `f2` is larger and larger where `f2` is smaller. The map converges after only 2 or 3 iterations, as is clear from the output:

```initial grid:
grid[ 0] = [ 0.   0.2  0.4  0.6  0.8  1. ]
grid[ 1] = [ 0.   0.2  0.4  0.6  0.8  1. ]

iteration 0:
grid[ 0] = [ 0.     0.412  0.62   0.76   0.883  1.   ]
grid[ 1] = [ 0.     0.506  0.691  0.821  0.91   1.   ]

iteration 1:
grid[ 0] = [ 0.     0.428  0.63   0.772  0.893  1.   ]
grid[ 1] = [ 0.     0.531  0.713  0.832  0.921  1.   ]

iteration 2:
grid[ 0] = [ 0.     0.433  0.63   0.772  0.894  1.   ]
grid[ 1] = [ 0.     0.533  0.714  0.831  0.922  1.   ]

iteration 3:
grid[ 0] = [ 0.     0.435  0.631  0.772  0.894  1.   ]
grid[ 1] = [ 0.     0.533  0.715  0.831  0.923  1.   ]

iteration 4:
grid[ 0] = [ 0.     0.436  0.631  0.772  0.895  1.   ]
grid[ 1] = [ 0.     0.533  0.715  0.831  0.924  1.   ]

```

The grid increments along direction 0 shrink at larger values `x`, varying as `1/x`. Along direction 1 the increments shrink more quickly varying like `1/x**2`.

`vegas` samples the integrand in order to estimate the integral. It uses those same samples to train its `vegas.AdaptiveMap` in this fashion, for use in subsequent iterations of the algorithm.

class `vegas.``AdaptiveMap`

Adaptive map `y->x(y)` for multidimensional `y` and `x`.

An `AdaptiveMap` defines a multidimensional map `y -> x(y)` from the unit hypercube, with `0 <= y[d] <= 1`, to an arbitrary hypercube in `x` space. Each direction is mapped independently with a Jacobian that is tunable (i.e., “adaptive”).

The map is specified by a grid in `x`-space that, by definition, maps into a uniformly spaced grid in `y`-space. The nodes of the grid are specified by `grid[d, i]` where d is the direction (`d=0,1...dim-1`) and `i` labels the grid point (`i=0,1...N`). The mapping for a specific point `y` into `x` space is:

```y[d] -> x[d] = grid[d, i(y[d])] + inc[d, i(y[d])] * delta(y[d])
```

where `i(y)=floor(y*N`), `delta(y)=y*N - i(y)`, and `inc[d, i] = grid[d, i+1] - grid[d, i]`. The Jacobian for this map,

```dx[d]/dy[d] = inc[d, i(y[d])] * N,
```

is piece-wise constant and proportional to the `x`-space grid spacing. Each increment in the `x`-space grid maps into an increment of size `1/N` in the corresponding `y` space. So regions in `x` space where `inc[d, i]` is small are stretched out in `y` space, while larger increments are compressed.

The `x` grid for an `AdaptiveMap` can be specified explicitly when the map is created: for example,

```m = AdaptiveMap([[0, 0.1, 1], [-1, 0, 1]])
```

creates a two-dimensional map where the `x` interval `(0,0.1)` and `(0.1,1)` map into the `y` intervals `(0,0.5)` and `(0.5,1)` respectively, while `x` intervals `(-1,0)` and `(0,1)` map into `y` intervals `(0,0.5)` and `(0.5,1)`.

More typically, an uniform map with `ninc` increments is first created: for example,

```m = AdaptiveMap([[0, 1], [-1, 1]], ninc=1000)
```

creates a two-dimensional grid, with 1000 increments in each direction, that spans the volume `0<=x<=1`, `-1<=x<=1`. This map is then trained with data `f[j]` corresponding to `ny` points `y[j, d]`, with `j=0...ny-1`, (usually) uniformly distributed in y space: for example,

```m.add_training_data(y, f)
```

`m.adapt(alpha=1.5)` shrinks grid increments where `f[j]` is large, and expands them where `f[j]` is small. Usually one has to iterate over several sets of `y`s and `f`s before the grid has fully adapted.

The speed with which the grid adapts is determined by parameter `alpha`. Large (positive) values imply rapid adaptation, while small values (much less than one) imply slow adaptation. As in any iterative process that involves random numbers, it is usually a good idea to slow adaptation down in order to avoid instabilities caused by random fluctuations.

Parameters: grid (list of arrays) – Initial `x` grid, where `grid[d][i]` is the `i`-th node in direction `d`. Different directions can have different numbers of nodes. ninc (int or array or `None`) – `ninc[d]` (or `ninc`, if it is a number) is the number of increments along direction `d` in the new `x` grid. The new grid is designed to give the same Jacobian `dx(y)/dy` as the original grid. The default value, `ninc=None`, leaves the grid unchanged.
Attributes and methods:
`dim`

Number of dimensions.

`ninc`

`ninc[d]` is the number increments in direction `d`.

`grid`

The nodes of the grid defining the maps are `self.grid[d, i]` where `d=0...` specifies the direction and `i=0...self.ninc` the node.

`inc`

The increment widths of the grid:

```self.inc[d, i] = self.grid[d, i + 1] - self.grid[d, i]
```
`adapt`(alpha=0.0, ninc=None)

Adapt grid to accumulated training data.

`self.adapt(...)` projects the training data onto each axis independently and maps it into `x` space. It shrinks `x`-grid increments in regions where the projected training data is large, and grows increments where the projected data is small. The grid along any direction is unchanged if the training data is constant along that direction.

The number of increments along a direction can be changed by setting parameter `ninc` (array or number).

The grid does not change if no training data has been accumulated, unless `ninc` is specified, in which case the number of increments is adjusted while preserving the relative density of increments at different values of `x`.

Parameters: alpha (double) – Determines the speed with which the grid adapts to training data. Large (postive) values imply rapid evolution; small values (much less than one) imply slow evolution. Typical values are of order one. Choosing `alpha<0` causes adaptation to the unmodified training data (usually not a good idea). ninc (int or array or None) – The number of increments in the new grid is `ninc[d]` (or `ninc`, if it is a number) in direction `d`. The number is unchanged from the old grid if `ninc` is omitted (or equals `None`, which is the default).
`add_training_data`(y, f, ny=-1)

Add training data `f` for `y`-space points `y`.

Accumulates training data for later use by `self.adapt()`. Grid increments will be made smaller in regions where `f` is larger than average, and larger where `f` is smaller than average. The grid is unchanged (converged?) when `f` is constant across the grid.

Parameters: y (array) – `y` values corresponding to the training data. `y` is a contiguous 2-d array, where `y[j, d]` is for points along direction `d`. f (array) – Training function values. `f[j]` corresponds to point `y[j, d]` in `y`-space. ny (int) – Number of `y` points: `y[j, d]` for `d=0...dim-1` and `j=0...ny-1`. `ny` is set to `y.shape` if it is omitted (or negative).
`adapt_to_samples`(x, f, nitn=5, alpha=1.0, nproc=1)

Adapt map to data `{x, f(x)}`.

Replace grid with one that is optimized for integrating function `f(x)`. New grid is found iteratively

Parameters: x (array) – `x[:, d]` are the components of the sample points in direction `d=0,1...self.dim-1`. f (callable or array) – Function `f(x)` to be adapted to. If `f` is an array, it is assumes to contain values `f[i]` corresponding to the function evaluated at points `x[i]`. nitn (int) – Number of iterations to use in adaptation. Default is `nitn=5`. alpha (float) – Damping parameter for adaptation. Default is `alpha=1.0`. Smaller values slow the iterative adaptation, to improve stability of convergence. nproc (int or None) – Number of processes/processors to use. If `nproc>1` Python’s `multiprocessing` module is used to spread the calculation across multiple processors. There is a significant overhead involved in using multiple processors so this option is useful mainly when very high dimenions or large numbers of samples are involved. When using the `multiprocessing` module in its default mode for MacOS and Windows, it is important that the main module can be safely imported (i.e., without launching new processes). This can be accomplished with some version of the `if __name__ == '__main__`:` construct in the main module: e.g., ```if __name__ == '__main__': main() ``` This is not an issue on other Unix platforms. See the `multiprocessing` documentation for more information. Set `nproc=None` to use all the processors on the machine (equivalent to `nproc=os.cpu_count()`). Default value is `nproc=1`. (Requires Python 3.3 or later.)
`__call__`(y)

Return `x` values corresponding to `y`.

`y` can be a single `dim`-dimensional point, or it can be an array `y[i,j, ..., d]` of such points (`d=0..dim-1`).

If `y=None` (default), `y` is set equal to a (uniform) random point in the volume.

`jac`(y)

Return the map’s Jacobian at `y`.

`y` can be a single `dim`-dimensional point, or it can be an array `y[i,j,...,d]` of such points (`d=0..dim-1`). Returns an array `jac` where `jac[i,j,...]` is the (multidimensional) Jacobian (`dx/dy`) corresponding to `y[i,j,...]`.

`jac1d`(y)

Return the map’s Jacobian at `y` for each direction.

`y` can be a single `dim`-dimensional point, or it can be an array `y[i,j,...,d]` of such points (`d=0..dim-1`). Returns an array `jac` where `jac[i,j,...,d]` is the (one-dimensional) Jacobian (`dx[d]/dy[d]`) corresponding to `y[i,j,...,d]`.

`make_uniform`(ninc=None)

Replace the grid with a uniform grid.

The new grid has `ninc[d]` (or `ninc`, if it is a number) increments along each direction if `ninc` is specified. If `ninc=None` (default), the new grid has the same number of increments in each direction as the old grid.

`map`(y, x, jac, ny=-1)

Map y to x, where jac is the Jacobian (`dx/dy`).

`y[j, d]` is an array of `ny` `y`-values for direction `d`. `x[j, d]` is filled with the corresponding `x` values, and `jac[j]` is filled with the corresponding Jacobian values. `x` and `jac` must be preallocated: for example,

```x = numpy.empty(y.shape, float)
jac = numpy.empty(y.shape, float)
```
Parameters: y (array) – `y` values to be mapped. `y` is a contiguous 2-d array, where `y[j, d]` contains values for points along direction `d`. x (array) – Container for `x[j, d]` values corresponding to `y[j, d]`. Must be a contiguous 2-d array. jac (array) – Container for Jacobian values `jac[j]` (`= dx/dy`) corresponding to `y[j, d]`. Must be a contiguous 1-d array. ny (int) – Number of `y` points: `y[j, d]` for `d=0...dim-1` and `j=0...ny-1`. `ny` is set to `y.shape` if it is omitted (or negative).
`invmap`(x, y, jac, nx=-1)

Map x to y, where jac is the Jacobian (`dx/dy`).

`y[j, d]` is an array of `ny` `y`-values for direction `d`. `x[j, d]` is filled with the corresponding `x` values, and `jac[j]` is filled with the corresponding Jacobian values. `x` and `jac` must be preallocated: for example,

```x = numpy.empty(y.shape, float)
jac = numpy.empty(y.shape, float)
```
Parameters: x (array) – `x` values to be mapped to `y`-space. `x` is a contiguous 2-d array, where `x[j, d]` contains values for points along direction `d`. y (array) – Container for `y[j, d]` values corresponding to `x[j, d]`. Must be a contiguous 2-d array jac (array) – Container for Jacobian values `jac[j]` (`= dx/dy`) corresponding to `y[j, d]`. Must be a contiguous 1-d array nx (int) – Number of `x` points: `x[j, d]` for `d=0...dim-1` and `j=0...nx-1`. `nx` is set to `x.shape` if it is omitted (or negative).
`show_grid`(ngrid=40, shrink=False)

Display plots showing the current grid.

Parameters: ngrid (int) – The number of grid nodes in each direction to include in the plot. The default is 40. axes – List of pairs of directions to use in different views of the grid. Using `None` in place of a direction plots the grid for only one direction. Omitting `axes` causes a default set of pairings to be used. shrink – Display entire range of each axis if `False`; otherwise shrink range to include just the nodes being displayed. The default is `False`. plotter – `matplotlib` plotter to use for plots; plots are not displayed if set. Ignored if `None`, and plots are displayed using `matplotlib.pyplot`.
`settings`(ngrid=5)

Create string with information about grid nodes.

Creates a string containing the locations of the nodes in the map grid for each direction. Parameter `ngrid` specifies the maximum number of nodes to print (spread evenly over the grid).

`extract_grid`()

Return a list of lists specifying the map’s grid.

`clear`()

Clear information accumulated by `AdaptiveMap.add_training_data()`.

## PDFIntegrator Objects¶

Expectation values using probability density functions defined by collections of Gaussian random variables (see `gvar`) can be evaluated using the following specialized integrator:

class `vegas.``PDFIntegrator`(g, limit=1e15, scale=1., svdcut=1e-15)

`vegas` integrator for PDF expectation values.

Given a multi-dimensional Gaussian distribtuion `g` (a collection of `gvar.GVar`s), `PDFIntegrator` creates a `vegas` integrator that evaluates expectation values of arbitrary functions `f(p)` where `p` is a point in the parameter space of the distribution. Typical usage is illustrated by:

```import vegas
import gvar as gv
import numpy as np

g = gv.BufferDict()
g['a'] = gv.gvar([10., 2.], [[1, 1.4], [1.4, 2]])
g['b'] = gv.BufferDict.uniform('fb', 2.9, 3.1)

expval = vegas.PDFIntegrator(g)

def f(p):
a = p['a']
b = p['b']
return a + np.fabs(a) ** b

result = expval(f, neval=1000, nitn=5)
print('<f(p)> =', result)
```

Here dictionary `g` specifies a three-dimensional distribution where the first two variables `g['a']` and `g['a']` are Gaussian with means 10 and 2, respectively, and covariance matrix [[1, 1.4], [1.4, 2.]]. The last variable `g['b']` is uniformly distributed on interval [2.9, 3.1]. The result is: `<f(p)> = 30.233(14)`.

`PDFIntegrator` evaluates integrals of both `f(p) * pdf(p)` and `pdf(p)`, where `pdf(p)` is the probability density function (PDF) associated with distribution `g`. The expectation value of `f(p)` is the ratio of these two integrals (so `pdf(p)` need not be normalized). Integration variables are chosen to optimize the integral, and the integrator is pre-adapted to `pdf(p)` (so it is often unnecessary to discard early iterations). The result of a `PDFIntegrator` integration has an extra attribute, `result.pdfnorm`, which is the `vegas` estimate of the integral over the PDF.

The default (Gaussian) PDF associated with `g` can be replaced by an arbitrary PDF function `pdf(p)`, allowing PDFIntegrator to be used for non-Gaussian distributions. In such cases, Gaussian distribution `g` does not affect the values of the integrals; it is used only to optimize the integration variables, and pre-adapt the integrator (and so affects the accuracy of the results). Ideally `g` is an approximation to the real distribution — for example, it could be the prior in a Bayesian analysis, or the result of a least-squares (or other peak-finding) analysis.

Parameters: g – `gvar.GVar`, array of `gvar.GVar`s, or dictionary whose values are `gvar.GVar`s or arrays of `gvar.GVar`s that specifies the multi-dimensional Gaussian distribution used to construct the probability density function. The integration variables are optimized for this function. pdf – If specified, `pdf(p)` is used as the probability density function rather than the Gaussian PDF associated with `g`. The Gaussian PDF is used if `pdf=None` (default). Note that PDFs need not be normalized. adapt_to_pdf (bool) – `vegas` adapts to the PDF when `adapt_to_pdf=True` (default). `vegas` adapts to `pdf(p) * f(p)` when calculating the expectation value of `f(p)` if `adapt_to_pdf=False`. limit (positive float) – Limits the integrations to a finite region of size `limit` times the standard deviation on either side of the mean. This can be useful if the functions being integrated misbehave for large parameter values (e.g., `numpy.exp` overflows for a large range of arguments). Default is `limit=100`. scale (positive float) – The integration variables are rescaled to emphasize parameter values of order `scale` times the standard deviation. The rescaling does not change the value of the integral but it can reduce uncertainties in the `vegas` estimate. Default is `scale=1.0`. svdcut (non-negative float or None) – If not `None`, replace correlation matrix of `g` with a new matrix whose small eigenvalues are modified: eigenvalues smaller than `svdcut` times the maximum eigenvalue `eig_max` are replaced by `svdcut*eig_max`. This can ameliorate problems caused by roundoff errors when inverting the covariance matrix. It increases the uncertainty associated with the modified eigenvalues and so is conservative. Setting `svdcut=None` or `svdcut=0` leaves the covariance matrix unchanged. Default is `svdcut=1e-15`.

All other keyword parameters are passed on to the the underlying `vegas.Integrator`; the `uses_jac` keyword is ignored.

Methods:
`__call__`(f, f=None, pdf=None, adapt_to_pdf=None, save=None, saveall=None, **kargs)

Estimate expectation value of function `f(p)`.

Uses module `vegas` to estimate the integral of `f(p)` multiplied by the probability density function associated with `g` (i.e., `pdf(p)`). At the same time it integrates the PDF. The ratio of the two integrals is the expectation value.

Parameters: f (function) – Function `f(p)` to integrate. Integral is the expectation value of the function with respect to the distribution. The function can return a number, an array of numbers, or a dictionary whose values are numbers or arrays of numbers. Setting `f=None` means that only the PDF is integrated. Integrals can be substantially faster if `f(p)` (and `pdf(p)` if set) are batch functions (see `vegas` documentation). pdf – If specified, `pdf(p)` is used as the probability density function rather than the Gaussian PDF associated with `g`. The Gaussian PDF is used if `pdf=None` (default). Note that PDFs need not be normalized. adapt_to_pdf (bool) – `vegas` adapts to the PDF when `adapt_to_pdf=True` (default). `vegas` adapts to `pdf(p) * f(p)` if `adapt_to_pdf=False`. save (str or file or None) – Writes `results` into pickle file specified by `save` at the end of each iteration. For example, setting `save='results.pkl'` means that the results returned by the last vegas iteration can be reconstructed later using: ```import pickle with open('results.pkl', 'rb') as ifile: results = pickle.load(ifile) ``` Ignored if `save=None` (default). saveall (str or file or None) – Writes `(results, integrator)` into pickle file specified by `saveall` at the end of each iteration. For example, setting `saveall='allresults.pkl'` means that the results returned by the last vegas iteration, together with a clone of the (adapted) integrator, can be reconstructed later using: ```import pickle with open('allresults.pkl', 'rb') as ifile: results, integrator = pickle.load(ifile) ``` Ignored if `saveall=None` (default).

All other keyword arguments are passed on to a `vegas` integrator; see the `vegas` documentation for further information.

## Other Objects and Functions¶

class `vegas.``RAvg`

Running average of scalar-valued Monte Carlo estimates.

This class accumulates independent Monte Carlo estimates (e.g., of an integral) and combines them into a single average. It is derived from `gvar.GVar` (from the `gvar` module if it is present) and represents a Gaussian random variable.

Different estimates are weighted by their inverse variances if parameter `weight=True`; otherwise straight, unweighted averages are used.

Attributes and methods:
`mean`

The mean value of the weighted average.

`sdev`

The standard deviation of the weighted average.

`chi2`

chi**2 of weighted average.

`dof`

Number of degrees of freedom in weighted average.

`Q`

Q or p-value of weighted average’s chi**2.

`itn_results`

A list of the results from each iteration.

`sum_neval`

Total number of integrand evaluations used in all iterations.

`add`(g)

Add estimate `g` to the running average.

`summary`(weighted=None)

Assemble summary of results, iteration-by-iteration, into a string.

Parameters: weighted (bool) – Display weighted averages of results from different iterations if `True`; otherwise show unweighted averages. Default behavior is determined by `vegas`.
`extend`(ravg)

Merge results from `RAvg` object `ravg` after results currently in `self`.

class `vegas.``RAvgArray`

Running average of array-valued Monte Carlo estimates.

This class accumulates independent arrays of Monte Carlo estimates (e.g., of an integral) and combines them into an array of averages. It is derived from `numpy.ndarray`. The array elements are `gvar.GVar`s (from the `gvar` module if present) and represent Gaussian random variables.

Different estimates are weighted by their inverse covariance matrices if parameter `weight=True`; otherwise straight, unweighted averages are used.

Attributes and methods:
`chi2`

chi**2 of weighted average.

`dof`

Number of degrees of freedom in weighted average.

`Q`

Q or p-value of weighted average’s chi**2.

`itn_results`

A list of the results from each iteration.

`sum_neval`

Total number of integrand evaluations used in all iterations.

`add`(g)

Add estimate `g` to the running average.

`summary`(extended=False, weighted=None)

Assemble summary of results, iteration-by-iteration, into a string.

Parameters: extended (bool) – Include a table of final averages for every component of the integrand if `True`. Default is `False`. weighted (bool) – Display weighted averages of results from different iterations if `True`; otherwise show unweighted averages. Default behavior is determined by `vegas`.
`extend`(ravg)

Merge results from `RAvgArray` object `ravg` after results currently in `self`.

class `vegas.``RAvgDict`

Running average of dictionary-valued Monte Carlo estimates.

This class accumulates independent dictionaries of Monte Carlo estimates (e.g., of an integral) and combines them into a dictionary of averages. It is derived from `gvar.BufferDict`. The dictionary values are `gvar.GVar`s or arrays of `gvar.GVar`s.

Different estimates are weighted by their inverse covariance matrices if parameter `weight=True`; otherwise straight, unweighted averages are used.

Attributes and methods:
`chi2`

chi**2 of weighted average.

`dof`

Number of degrees of freedom in weighted average.

`Q`

Q or p-value of weighted average’s chi**2.

`itn_results`

A list of the results from each iteration.

`sum_neval`

Total number of integrand evaluations used in all iterations.

`add`(g)
`summary`(extended=False, weighted=None)

Assemble summary of results, iteration-by-iteration, into a string.

Parameters: extended (bool) – Include a table of final averages for every component of the integrand if `True`. Default is `False`. weighted (bool) – Display weighted averages of results from different iterations if `True`; otherwise show unweighted averages. Default behavior is determined by `vegas`.
`extend`(ravg)

Merge results from `RAvgDict` object `ravg` after results currently in `self`.

`vegas.``batchintegrand`()

Decorator for batch integrand functions.

Applying `vegas.batchintegrand()` to a function `fcn` repackages the function in a format that `vegas` can understand. Appropriate functions take a `numpy` array of integration points `x[i, d]` as an argument, where `i=0...` labels the integration point and `d=0...` labels direction, and return an array `f[i]` of integrand values (or arrays of integrand values) for the corresponding points. The meaning of `fcn(x)` is unchanged by the decorator.

An example is

```import vegas
import numpy as np

@vegas.batchintegrand      # or @vegas.lbatchintegrand
def f(x):
return np.exp(-x[:, 0] - x[:, 1])
```

for the two-dimensional integrand .

class `vegas.``BatchIntegrand`

Wrapper for l-batch integrands.

Used by `vegas.batchintegrand()`.

`vegas.``rbatchintegrand`()

Same as `vegas.batchintegrand()` but with batch indices on the right (not left).

class `vegas.``RBatchIntegrand`

Same as `vegas.BatchIntegrand` but with batch indices on the right (not left).

`vegas.``lbatchintegrand`()

Decorator for batch integrand functions.

Applying `vegas.batchintegrand()` to a function `fcn` repackages the function in a format that `vegas` can understand. Appropriate functions take a `numpy` array of integration points `x[i, d]` as an argument, where `i=0...` labels the integration point and `d=0...` labels direction, and return an array `f[i]` of integrand values (or arrays of integrand values) for the corresponding points. The meaning of `fcn(x)` is unchanged by the decorator.

An example is

```import vegas
import numpy as np

@vegas.batchintegrand      # or @vegas.lbatchintegrand
def f(x):
return np.exp(-x[:, 0] - x[:, 1])
```

for the two-dimensional integrand .

`vegas.``LBatchIntegrand`

alias of `vegas._vegas.BatchIntegrand`

`vegas.``ravg`(reslist, weighted=None, rescale=None)

Create running average from list of `vegas` results.

This function is used to change how the weighted average of `vegas` results is calculated. For example, the following code discards the first five results (where `vegas` is still adapting) and does an unweighted average of the last five:

```import vegas

def fcn(p):
return p * p * p * p * 16.

itg = vegas.Integrator(4 * [[0,1]])
r = itg(fcn)
print(r.summary())
ur = vegas.ravg(r.itn_results[5:], weighted=False)
print(ur.summary())
```

The unweighted average can be useful because it is unbiased. The output is:

```itn   integral        wgt average     chi2/dof        Q
-------------------------------------------------------
1   1.013(19)       1.013(19)           0.00     1.00
2   0.997(14)       1.002(11)           0.45     0.50
3   1.021(12)       1.0112(80)          0.91     0.40
4   0.9785(97)      0.9980(62)          2.84     0.04
5   1.0067(85)      1.0010(50)          2.30     0.06
6   0.9996(75)      1.0006(42)          1.85     0.10
7   1.0020(61)      1.0010(34)          1.54     0.16
8   1.0051(52)      1.0022(29)          1.39     0.21
9   1.0046(47)      1.0029(24)          1.23     0.27
10   0.9976(47)      1.0018(22)          1.21     0.28

itn   integral        average         chi2/dof        Q
-------------------------------------------------------
1   0.9996(75)      0.9996(75)          0.00     1.00
2   1.0020(61)      1.0008(48)          0.06     0.81
3   1.0051(52)      1.0022(37)          0.19     0.83
4   1.0046(47)      1.0028(30)          0.18     0.91
5   0.9976(47)      1.0018(26)          0.31     0.87
```
Parameters: reslist (list) – List whose elements are `gvar.GVar`s, arrays of `gvar.GVar`s, or dictionaries whose values are `gvar.GVar`s or arrays of `gvar.GVar`s. Alternatively `reslist` can be the object returned by a call to a `vegas.Integrator` object (i.e, an instance of any of `vegas.RAvg`, `vegas.RAvgArray`, `vegas.RAvgArray`, `vegas.PDFRAvg`, `vegas.PDFRAvgArray`, `vegas.PDFRAvgArray`). weighted (bool) – Running average is weighted (by the inverse covariance matrix) if `True`. Otherwise the average is unweighted, which makes most sense if `reslist` items were generated by `vegas` with little or no adaptation (e.g., with `adapt=False`). If `weighted` is not specified (or is `None`), it is set equal to `getattr(reslist, 'weighted', True)`. rescale – Integration results are divided by `rescale` before taking the weighted average if `weighted=True`; otherwise `rescale` is ignored. Setting `rescale=True` is equivalent to setting `rescale=reslist[-1]`. If `rescale` is not specified (or is `None`), it is set equal to `getattr(reslist, 'rescale', True)`.